THE TEN FINAL CONSONANTS

The final letters, to be pronounced after the vowel, are:

G, –D*, –B, –(sometimes -ƞ particularly in Khaita songs, which are in lower case),M, –N*, –R, –L, –N, S*

(finals with * cause the preceding vowel to change according to these rules)

NON VOICED:


• Final –G is pronounced as a very light k, shortening and stopping the preceding vowel, which remains unchanged. For example:

NAG
LUG
 RIG
DOG
LEG

 

• Final –D* is pronounced like a very light d, the sound of the vowel changes according to these rules:

SÌD
GYÚD
 MED
DÓD
GYÁD

 

• Final –B is pronounced as a very light p, shortening and stopping the preceding vowel, which remains unchanged. For example:

NUB
DRǓB
 DRÍB
LÓB
TRAB

 

NASALS ( pronounced as in English)

 

• Final – (-ƞ when in lower case) is pronounced like -ng in ring, vowel remains unchanged:

RIN̂
LÚN̂
 DǍN̂
DON̂
KAN̂

 

• Final –M is pronounced m:

LAM
RIM
 BÙM
DÓM
SEM

 

• Final –N* is pronounced n, and the sound of the preceding vowel changes according to these rules:

LAN
MUN
 RIN
MÒN
DRÉN

 

FINAL LETTERS TO BE PRONOUNCED IN A LIGHTER WAY

 

• Final –R is pronounced as a soft  r:

BǍR
GYÚR
TAR
DOR
SÈR

 

• Final –L is pronounced l in a lighter way, and the sound of the vowel changes in Central Tibetan. However, according to the pronunciation in Eastern Tibet, the suffix -l does not modify the sound of the vowel:

NÁL
DRUL
 GYIL
SÒL
DRÈL

 

UNPRONOUNCED FINAL:

 

• Final –S* is silent (unpronounced) but slightly lengthens and changes the preceding vowel according to these rules:

QOS
LUG
 RIG
TOG
LEG

 

A note on syllables after the first:

The syllables beyond the first, in  words having more than one syllable, undergo the following changes:

 

• Aspiration is removed

• Syllables with a voiced variant (GǍ, JǍ, DǍ, BǍ, GYǍ, JYǍ and DRǍ) are pronounced voiced